Four Ethereum developers, with infamous Vlad Zamfir among them, have published a draft (v1.0) of a technical document with Casper solution.
According to Zamfir, the document contains a more detailed description of a new technological solution which augments open information about Casper.
This protocol, first announced in 2015, implies Ethereum’s switch to Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithm. Vlad Zamfir’s Casper version is called Casper Correct by Construction (CBC). Its first version was published in November 2017.
In October of last year, Ethereum’s founder Vitalik Buterin showed a different version of the protocol – Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG). It implies the use of a hybrid consensus mechanism, merging both the current Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake. First FFG code release was published on GitHub in May this year.
Casper launch is planned after the Constantinople update, which is planned for the beginning of 2019.
Lately, Vitalik Buterin announced that the ecosystem is switching to the next stage, Ethereum 2.0, which will be named Serenity.
A massive upgrade will be preceded by Casper activation, switch to Proof-of-Stake, sharding, virtual machine update, change of cross-contact logic and protocol economics. Buterin also expects that as a result, Ethereum network will become faster, safer and less energy-consuming: he claims that bandwidth will exceed 1000 transactions per second.